In the region of the Loma Quita Espuela, there is great biodiversity and a high degree of endemic flora and fauna. It is an important refuge for endangered species for example the guinea pig (Plagiodontia nedium) and solenodonte (Solenodon paradoxus) that are the oldest mammals on the island.
More than eleven percent of the national flora is represented in Reserve Loma Quito Espuela and over 58 species of birds have been reported, 23 of those being endemic.
The climate of the area is mainly affected by the solvents from the northeast trade winds.
These winds come from the sea with high humidity, hit the mountain range driving up the clouds: By rising, the water condensates and produces a lot of rainfall.
Therefore in this area is the highest amount of rainfall throughout the country. The amount of rainfall rises upward to the peak, and go down to the southwest.
In the highlands rainfall is estimated between 3.000 and 4.000 mm per year. Such rainfall coupled with high temperatures result in good condition for the development of the rainforest.
Because of the high amount of rainfall in the Loma Quita Espuela Scientific Reserve, it is of great importance in water appearance. Since there arise some 46 water sources from rivers and streams, in addition to about 15 that originate in the periphery of the reserve, there are overall 61 water sources.
These waters are used for consumption in the towns of San Francisco de Macoris, Nagua, Pimentel and Salcedo, as well as for agricultural use.
Loma Quita Espuela Scientific Reserve is characterized by the existence of rain forest and in the higher parts, (> 700msnm) of cloud forest.
The latter is characterized by the constant presence of clouds. Those gt caught by the lush vegetation, containing a large variety of mosses, bromeliads, ferns and lichens, causing the phenomenon of horizontal rain.
This means that the forest receives more water than the rain that is falling.
The most abundant tree species are the Manacla Palma (Prestoea montana), Cola (Mora abbottii), Sabina without odor (Cyrilla racemiflora) and Wind Palor (Didymopanax tremulus).
The rain forest is affected by high rainfall which varies from 3.000 to 4.000 mm / yr.
The vegetation in this area consists of hardwood of great exuberance such as abbottii Mora (being the most abundant species), the Cyrilla recemiflora, the Ocotea ricardii leucoxylum and Tabebuia (Palo de Vela).
The reserve contains more than 612 different species of plants.
The endemic species of the reserve area were calculated 12 of the species present (75 Spermatophytas and 2 ferns). The only species considered as restricted by the limits of the reserve is called Palo de Vela, Tabebuia ricardii.
Studies in the Reserve Loma Quita Espuela state that there exists a high diversity of species both flora and fauna
For the group of insects (entomological) have been reported 24 species belonging to seven orders and 12 families.
With regard to the Ichthyofauna (fish), have been reported six families with seven genera and nine species, of which five are endemic to the island. The four remaining species are native.
The Herpetofauna of the reserve is well represented with nine species of amphibians of which seven are endemic and 18 species of reptiles of which thirteen are endemic.
Among the 58 reported bird species. The endemic avifauna is characterized by the presence of 23 species representing 39.7% of the total for the reserve.
Mammals that are reported are composed of four species of bats, Solenodo paradoxus (solenodonte) and guinea pig aedium Plagiodontia.
Note, that twelve species for various reasons are in some state of threat.